I hope we can all pause and reflect on the extraordinary life of a true
American hero on Saturday (March 31). It's Cesar Chavez Day, proclaimed by President Obama and observed throughout the
country on the 85th birth date of the late founder of the United Farm Workers union. It's an official state holiday in
California, Texas and Colorado.
As President Obama noted, Chavez was a leader in launching "one of our nation's
most inspiring movements." He taught us, Obama added, "that social justice takes action, selflessness and commitment.
As we face the challenges of the day, let us do so with the hope and determination of Cesar Chavez."
another American hero, Martin Luther King Jr., Chavez inspired and energized millions of people worldwide to seek and win
basic human rights that had long been denied them, and inspired millions of others to join the struggle.
there are few people in any field more deserving of special attention, certainly no one I've met in more than a half-century
of labor reporting.
I first met Cesar Chavez when I was covering labor for the San Francisco Chronicle. It was
on a hot summer night in 1965 in the little San Joaquin Valley town of Delano, California. Chavez, shining black hair trailing
across his forehead, wearing a green plaid shirt that had become almost a uniform, sat behind a makeshift desk topped with
bright red Formica.
"Si se puede," he said repeatedly to me, a highly skeptical reporter, as we talked
deep into the early morning hours there in the cluttered shack that served as headquarters for him and the others who were
trying to create an effective farm workers union.
"Si se puede! – it can be done!"
But I would not be swayed. Too many others, over too many years, had tried and failed to win for farm workers the union
rights they absolutely had to have if they were to escape the severe economic and social deprivation inflicted on them by
their grower employers.
The Industrial Workers of the World who stormed across western fields early in the 20th
century, the Communists who followed, the socialists, the AFL and CIO organizers – all their efforts had collapsed
under the relentless pressure of growers and their powerful political allies.
I was certain this effort would be
no different. I was wrong. I had not accounted for the tactical brilliance, creativity, courage and just plain stubbornness
of Cesar Chavez, a sad-eyed, disarmingly soft-spoken man who talked of militancy in calm, measured tones, a gentle and incredibly
patient man who hid great strategic talent behind shy smiles and an attitude of utter candor.
Chavez grasped the
essential fact that farm workers had to organize themselves. Outside organizers, however well intentioned, could not do it.
Chavez, a farm worker himself, carefully put together a grass-roots organization that enabled the workers to form their own
union, which then sought out – and won – widespread support from influential outsiders.
The key weapon of the organization, newly proclaimed the United Farm Workers, or UFW, was the boycott. It was so effective
between 1968 and 1975 that 12 percent of the country's adult population – that's 17 million people
– quit buying table grapes.
The UFW's grape boycott and others against wineries and lettuce growers
won the first farm union contracts in history in 1970. That led to enactment five years later of the California law – also
a first – that requires growers to bargain collectively with workers who vote for unionization. And that led
to substantial improvements in the pay, benefits, working conditions and general status of the state's farm workers. Similar
laws, with similar results, have now been enacted elsewhere.
The struggle that finally led to victory was extremely
difficult for the impoverished workers, and Chavez risked his health – if not his life – to
provide them extreme examples of the sacrifices necessary for victory. Most notably, he engaged in lengthy, highly publicized
fasts that helped rally the public to the farm workers' cause and that may very well have contributed to his untimely
death in 1993 at age 66.
Fasts, boycotts. It's no coincidence that those were the principal tools of Mohandas
Gandhi, for Chavez drew much of his inspiration from the Hindu leader. Like Gandhi and another of his models, Martin
Luther King Jr., Chavez fervently believed in the tactics of non-violence. Like them, he showed the world how profoundly effective
they can be in seeking justice from even the most powerful opponents.
"We have our bodies and spirits and
the justice of our cause as our weapons," Chavez explained.
His iconic position has been questioned
recently by outsiders claiming Chavez acted as a dictator in his last years as head of the UFW. But what the UFW accomplished
under his leadership, and how the union accomplished it, will never be forgotten – not by the millions of social
activists who have been inspired and energized by the farm workers' struggle, nor by the workers themselves.
Chavez deservedly remains, and undoubtedly will always remain, an American icon who led the way to winning important
legal rights for farm workers. But more than union contracts, and more than laws, farm workers now have what Cesar Chavez
insisted was needed above all else. That, as he told me so many years ago, "is to have the workers truly believe and
understand and know that they are free, that they are free men and women, that they are free to stand up and fight for their
Freedom. No leader has ever left a greater legacy. But the struggle continues. Despite the
UFW victories, farm workers are in great need of fully exercising the rights won under Chavez' leadership. They need to
reverse what has been a decline in the UFW's fortunes in recent years, caused in part by lax enforcement of the laws that
granted farm workers union rights.
Many farm workers are still mired in poverty, their pay and working and living
conditions a national disgrace. They average less than $10,000 a year and have few – if any – fringe
benefits. They suffer seasonal unemployment.
Job security is rare, as many of the workers are desperately poor
immigrants from Mexico or Central America who must take whatever is offered or be replaced by other desperately poor workers
from the endless stream of immigrants. Child labor is rampant.
Most hiring and firing is done at the whim of employers,
many of them wealthy corporate growers or labor contractors who unilaterally set pay and working conditions and otherwise
Workers are often exposed to dangerous pesticides and other serious health and safety hazards
that make farm work one of the country's most dangerous occupations. They often even lack such on-the-job amenities as
fresh drinking water and field toilets, and almost invariably are forced to live in overcrowded, seriously substandard housing.
Cesar Chavez Day should remind us of the continuing need to take forceful legal steps and other action in behalf of
farm workers – to help them overcome their wretched conditions and finally provide a decent life for all those who do
the hard, dirty and dangerous work that puts fruit and vegetables on our tables.
We need, in short, to carry on
what Cesar Chavez began. We could pay no greater homage to his memory.
Copyright © 2012 Dick Meister